Overview


Subject/Sub-Subject: Science/Physical Science


Title: The Wright Brothers and Bernoulli's Principle


Summary:

Students explore and analyze primary source images of various examples of flight by grouping images by similarities. Students will then explore how Bernoulli's principles were applied to the Wright Brothers first flights.


Understanding Goal

Inventions are the result of the application of scientific principles.

Investigative Question

How did the Wright Brothers application of Bernoulli's principle in their airplane differ from other means of flight?

Grade(s): 8, 1
Audience: General
Learners: A class of 24 students with a wide range of abilities, divided into groups.
Required Vocabulary: N/A
Prior Content Knowledge: N/A
Standards

Virginia: Science - Grade 8

VA.PS.10. Physical Science: The student will investigate and understand scientific principles and technological applications of work, force, and motion. Key concepts include a) speed, velocity, and acceleration; b) Newton's laws of motion; c) work, force, mechanical advantage, efficiency, and power; d) applications (simple machines, compound machines, powered vehicles, rockets, and restraining devices).

Field Tests

Click on the title to expand the description of each field test

Sources

The Wright Brothers and Bernoulli's Principle

Understanding Goal

Inventions are the result of the application of scientific principles.

Click on an image for more information.

Slideshow Icon View as a slideshow
[Humorous portrayal of a man who flies with wings attached to his tunic]
Flugmaschine. Erfunden von Jacob Degen in Wien, 1807 / Jos. Belbing, s.c.

Airship Akron, U.S. Navy. Airship Akron through columns of Lincoln Memorial. [Side view of glider flying as a kite near the ground, Wilbur at left and Orville at right, glider turned forward to right and tipped downward] The aerial steam carriage Twining ornithopter, flying machine with bird-like wings [Wilbur Wright in prone position on glider just after landing, its skid marks visible behind it and, in the foreground, skid marks from a previous landing; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] [1901 glider being flown as a kite, Wilbur at left side, Orville at right; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] [Orville at left wing end of upended glider, bottom view; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] [Dan Tate, at left, and Edward C. Huffaker, at right, launching the 1901 glider with either Wilbur or Orville piloting] [Crumpled glider wrecked by the wind on Hill of the Wreck (named after a shipwreck)] [The remodeled 1905 Wright machine, altered to allow the operator to assume a sitting position and to provide a seat for a passenger, on the launching track at Kill Devil Hills. This is apparently the only photograph of this machine taken by the Wright brothers in 1908] Steam-kite, or inclined plane, for navigating the air, invented by John H. Pennington, of Baltimore, Md. [Wilbur and Orville Wright with their second powered machine; Huffman Prairie, Dayton, Ohio] Pennington & Cos. aerial steam ship or composite ballon The new air-ship "City of New York." Wood engraving In Harper's Weekly, Sept. 24, 1859. Dies [Orville at left wing end of upended glider, bottom view; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] Mythology - Mercury, god of commerce and messenger of the gods Voyage a la lune [Group of men boarding an airship] Flying Machines Aero Squadron, Mobilization Camp, Texas City, 1913 Hammond Flying Machine Clement's model for flying machine [Balloons, airships, and other flying machines designed with some form of propulsion] / E. Morieu, sc. Aircraft. Naval. The Navy's "Coronado" (PB2Y-2) was designed by Consolidated for long-range patrol and transport missions. It is an all-metal, high-wing flying boat powered by four Pratt and Whitney engines of 1,200 horsepower each. Its speed is over 200 miles per hour, its range over 3,000 miles, its service ceiling approximately 20,000 feet, its load capacity 30,000 pounds. It carries a crew of ten men armed with 50-caliber machine guns and bombs

Required Materials

Agendas

Images_Draw_You_In.pdf

Directions

Investigation

Step 0 Print out enough copies of the pictures, so that each group will have a complete set of pictures. Post the understanding goal in the front of the classroom.
Step 1 Refer to the understanding goal as your introduce the activity. Give each goup of students a copy of each of the pictures depicting flight.
Step 2. Have the student's group the pictures by similarities into at least 2 different groups.
Step 4 Ask each group to explain what characteristics they used to form each group.
Step 5 Ask each group to present to the class which of thier groups best represents Bernolli's Principle.
Step 6 Discuss how the Wright Brothers used Bernolli's Principle to design their aircraft.

Best Instructional Practices


Understanding Goal

Inventions are the result of the application of scientific principles.

Investigative Question

How did the Wright Brothers application of Bernoulli's principle in their airplane differ from other means of flight?


Analysis of Student Learning


Student's were engaged in analyzing the pictures. They seemed to be particularly interested in the very early examples. They were able to make the association between Bernolli's principle and the Wright Brothers planes. It gave them a better understanding of lift compared to the lighter than air methods employed. It also stimulated conversations about the difficulties encountered by early flight and the relationship of gravity.


Analysis of Best Instructional Practices (learn more)

Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Instruction (learn more)

Grouping Learners

Groups were made up of students with various abilites including special education students. the stronger students explained the principle to the weaker students.

Literacy Instruction Literacy Instruction(learn more)

Visual

The concept was presented in a visual manner by having the students anaylze pictures for similarities and differences.

Teaching for Understanding Teaching for Understanding(learn more)

Explicit Understanding Goal

Investigate the use of Bernolli's principle in early ariplanes.

Reflections and Recommendations


The students clearly enjoyed the hands on activity of sorting the pictures and the discussion surrounding the analysis. They were engaged throughout the lesson and remained on task. It was nice to see students with a better understanding of the principle explaining it to members of their group. The additional questions posed related to mass and gravity were a plus.

Credits

Authors and Contributors

Library of Congress Items

Library of Congress items used in this Lesson Plan.

Thumbnail Library of Congress Item
[Humorous portrayal of a man who flies with wings attached to his tunic]
Unknown. 1800-1830. [Humorous portrayal of a man who flies with wings attached to his tunic] . Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Tissandier Collection .
Flugmaschine. Erfunden von Jacob Degen in Wien, 1807 / Jos. Belbing, s.c.

Belbing, J. ca. 1810. Flugmaschine. Erfunden von Jacob Degen in Wien, 1807 / Jos. Belbing, s.c. . Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Tissandier Collection .
Airship Akron, U.S. Navy. Airship Akron through columns of Lincoln Memorial. Horydczak, T. ca. 1920-ca. 1950. Airship Akron, U.S. Navy. Airship Akron through columns of Lincoln Memorial. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Horydczak Collection .
[Side view of glider flying as a kite near the ground, Wilbur at left and Orville at right, glider turned forward to right and tipped downward] Wright, Wilbur and Orville 1901. [Side view of glider flying as a kite near the ground, Wilbur at left and Orville at right, glider turned forward to right and tipped downward]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
The aerial steam carriage Unknown. ca. 1843. The aerial steam carriage. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Tissandier Collection .
Twining ornithopter, flying machine with bird-like wings Unknown. 1910. Twining ornithopter, flying machine with bird-like wings. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Bain Collection.
[Wilbur Wright in prone position on glider just after landing, its skid marks visible behind it and, in the foreground, skid marks from a previous landing; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] Unknown. 1901. [Wilbur Wright in prone position on glider just after landing, its skid marks visible behind it and, in the foreground, skid marks from a previous landing; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
[1901 glider being flown as a kite, Wilbur at left side, Orville at right; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] Wright, W. & Wright, O. 1901. [1901 glider being flown as a kite, Wilbur at left side, Orville at right; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
[Orville at left wing end of upended glider, bottom view; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] Wright, W. 1901. [Orville at left wing end of upended glider, bottom view; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
[Dan Tate, at left, and Edward C. Huffaker, at right, launching the 1901 glider with either Wilbur or Orville piloting] Unknown. 1901. [Dan Tate, at left, and Edward C. Huffaker, at right, launching the 1901 glider with either Wilbur or Orville piloting]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
[Crumpled glider wrecked by the wind on Hill of the Wreck (named after a shipwreck)] Wright, W. 1900. [Crumpled glider wrecked by the wind on Hill of the Wreck (named after a shipwreck)]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
[The remodeled 1905 Wright machine, altered to allow the operator to assume a sitting position and to provide a seat for a passenger, on the launching track at Kill Devil Hills. This is apparently the only photograph of this machine taken by the Wright brothers in 1908] Unknown. 1908. [The remodeled 1905 Wright machine, altered to allow the operator to assume a sitting position and to provide a seat for a passenger, on the launching track at Kill Devil Hills. This is apparently the only photograph of this machine taken by the Wright brothers in 1908]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
Steam-kite, or inclined plane, for navigating the air, invented by John H. Pennington, of Baltimore, Md. Unknown. c1838. Steam-kite, or inclined plane, for navigating the air, invented by John H. Pennington, of Baltimore, Md. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Popular Graphic Arts.
[Wilbur and Orville Wright with their second powered machine; Huffman Prairie, Dayton, Ohio] Unknown. 1904. [Wilbur and Orville Wright with their second powered machine; Huffman Prairie, Dayton, Ohio]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
Pennington & Cos. aerial steam ship or composite ballon Unknown. c1850. Pennington & Cos. aerial steam ship or composite ballon. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Popular Graphic Arts.
The new air-ship "City of New York." Wood engraving In Harper's Weekly, Sept. 24, 1859. Unknown. 1859. The new air-ship "City of New York." Wood engraving In Harper's Weekly, Sept. 24, 1859. Library of Congress: Research Centers, Prints & Photographs Reading Room.
Dies Unknown. 16--. Dies. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs.
[Orville at left wing end of upended glider, bottom view; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina] Unknown. 1901. [Orville at left wing end of upended glider, bottom view; Kitty Hawk, North Carolina]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Wright Brothers Negatives.
Mythology - Mercury, god of commerce and messenger of the gods Unknown. n.d.. Mythology - Mercury, god of commerce and messenger of the gods. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Prints & Photographs Reading Room.
Voyage a la lune Unknown. 1865-1870. Voyage a la lune. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Tissandier Collection .
[Group of men boarding an airship] Unknown. 1915-1925. [Group of men boarding an airship]. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, RR-Detroit Publishing Company Collection.
Flying Machines Aero Squadron, Mobilization Camp, Texas City, 1913 Maurer, J. M. 1913. Flying Machines Aero Squadron, Mobilization Camp, Texas City, 1913. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Panoramic Photographs .
Hammond Flying Machine Unknown. 1910-1915. Hammond Flying Machine. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, RR-George Grantham Bain Collection.
Clement's model for flying machine Bain News Service. n.d.. Clement's model for flying machine. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, RR-George Grantham Bain Collection.
[Balloons, airships, and other flying machines designed with some form of propulsion] / E. Morieu, sc. Morieu, E. 1885-1904. [Balloons, airships, and other flying machines designed with some form of propulsion] / E. Morieu, sc. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Tissandier Collection .
Aircraft. Naval. The Navy's "Coronado" (PB2Y-2) was designed by Consolidated for long-range patrol and transport missions. It is an all-metal, high-wing flying boat powered by four Pratt and Whitney engines of 1,200 horsepower each. Its speed is over 200 miles per hour, its range over 3,000 miles, its service ceiling approximately 20,000 feet, its load capacity 30,000 pounds. It carries a crew of ten men armed with 50-caliber machine guns and bombs Unknown. 1940-1946. Aircraft. Naval. The Navy's "Coronado" (PB2Y-2) was designed by Consolidated for long-range patrol and transport missions. It is an all-metal, high-wing flying boat powered by four Pratt and Whitney engines of 1,200 horsepower each. Its speed is over 200 miles per hour, its range over 3,000 miles, its service ceiling approximately 20,000 feet, its load capacity 30,000 pounds. It carries a crew of ten men armed with 50-caliber machine guns and bombs. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs.