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Overview

Student Work:
Slideshow Icon Slideshow

Subject/Sub-Subject: Social Studies/Geography


Title: Urbanization / Function of Cities


Summary:

Students use images to investigate why and how the functions of cities change over time. They record their findings on a guided-notetaking sheet. Then students form jigsaw groups to share information about other cities, completing the guided-notetaking sheet. At the end of the lesson, students see that cities develop, following different patterns.


Understanding Goal

Patterns describe how cities develop.

Investigative Question

How and why do the functions of cities change over time?

Grade(s): 8, 1
Audience: Special Education
Learners: This learning experience was implemented in a small, self-contained special-education classroom with seven eighth-grade students.
Required Vocabulary: N/A
Prior Content Knowledge: N/A
Standards

Virginia 11th-grade World Geography standard:
WG.11 The student will analyze the patterns of urban development by
b) explaining how the functions of towns and cities have changed over time.

Field Tests

Click on the title to expand the description of each field test


Sources

Urbanization / Function of Cities

Understanding Goal

Patterns describe how cities develop.

Click on an image for more information.

Slideshow Icon View as a slideshow
Washington Monument. Views of Washington Monument VIII Ashcroft, Colorado Ashcroft, Colorado Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. View of river at Pittsburgh City of Pittsburgh 1902, New York skyline. A capital do Brasil.
Brazil East Battery, Charleston, S.C Jerusalem (El-Kouds), David's Tomb, exterior The great Union Stock Yards, Chicago

Required Materials

Files

Functions_ of_ Cities_student_worksheet.doc
5557_Functions_of_Cities_key.doc

Directions

Investigation

Step 1 Put students into groups of 2 or 3. You should have more than one group for each city.
Step 2 Give each group photos from one city and the attached student handout, "City Functions".
Step 3 Allow the students to examine the photos and to fill in their section of the handout.
Step 4 Regroup students into city groups, and give them several minutes to share their responses and to refine their answers.
Step 5 Jigsaw groups so that there is one expert for each city in each group. Students share their information with the rest of the group.
Step 6 Lead a whole class discussion on why cities' functions change over time.

Best Practices


Analysis of Student Learning


As students analyzed 2-3 pictures of each city, they were able to determine how the purpose of the city changed over time. They were able to identify the actual changes to the city by comparing/contrasting all of the pictures as a group.


Analysis of Best Instructional Practices (learn more)

Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Instruction (learn more)

Grouping Learners

Students moved from groups of 2-3 students to larger groups, dealing with the same content. This movement supported students who needed more scaffolding and helped stronger students deepen their understanding of the content by helping the struggling students.

Literacy Instruction Literacy Instruction(learn more)

Visual

Students sharpened their observation and critical-thinking skills by examining visual images for clues that led to forming conclusions based on those images.

Teaching for Understanding Teaching for Understanding(learn more)

Explicit Understanding Goal

As students moved into groups, they learned that the purpose of their group work was to determine how and why cities change over time.

Check Misconceptions

After analyzing the photos in small groups, students formed larger groups and conferred with other students who analyzed the same photos to compare and revise their conclusions.

Learners Explain Thinking

Initially, students helped one another draw conclusions from their photo analysis. Then, students supported their conclusions when they joined other students who analyzed the same photos. Finally, as experts on their city, students joined jigsaw groups to report and support their conclusions.

Reflections and Recommendations


Students were able to identify the actual changes to the city by comparing/contrasting all of the pictures as a group. When I do this lesson again, I plan to use a PowerPoint presentation that allows me to have each picture. Then I will have a slide that has the pictures side by side to make it easier to compare/contrast the past and present pictures.


Credits

Authors and Contributors

Philip Hayden
Kenmore Middle School, Arlington County Public Schools, Virginia
Lilo Stephens
Kenmore Middle School, Arlington County Public Schools, Virginia

Library of Congress Items

Library of Congress items used in this Lesson Plan.

Thumbnail Library of Congress Item
Washington Monument. Views of Washington Monument VIII Horydczak, T. c. 1920-1950. Washington Monument. Views of Washington Monument VIII. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Horydczak Collection .
Ashcroft, Colorado Kemp, Donald Campbell. 1943? Ashcroft, Colorado. Library of Congress: American Memory, History of the American West, 1860-1920: Photographs from the Collection of the Denver Public Library.
Ashcroft, Colorado Kemp, Donald Campbell. 1943? Ashcroft, Colorado. Library of Congress: American Memory, History of the American West, 1860-1920: Photographs from the Collection of the Denver Public Library.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. View of river at Pittsburgh Horydczak, T. c. 1920-1950. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. View of river at Pittsburgh. Library of Congress: American Memory, Washington as It Was: Photographs by Theodor Horydczak, 1923-1959.
City of Pittsburgh Brehm, F. W. 1908 City of Pittsburgh. Library of Congress: American Memory, Panoramic Photographs: Taking the Long View, 1851-1991.
1902, New York skyline. Underhill, Irving 1902. 1902, New York skyline. Library of Congress: American Memory, Panoramic Photographs .
A capital do Brasil.
Michellerie, E. de la 1831. A capital do Brasil. . Library of Congress: Global Gateways, United States and Brazil: Expanding Frontiers, Comparing Cultures.
Brazil United States Central Intelligence Agency. 1994 Brazil. Library of Congress: American Memory, Map Collections: 1500-2004.
East Battery, Charleston, S.C Unknown. c1906. East Battery, Charleston, S.C. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, RR-Detroit Publishing Company Collection.
Jerusalem (El-Kouds), David's Tomb, exterior American Colony Jerusalem. Jerusalem (El-Kouds), David's Tomb, exterior. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Matson (G. Eric and Edith) Negatives.
The great Union Stock Yards, Chicago Unknown c1903. The great Union Stock Yards, Chicago. Library of Congress: Prints & Photographs, Sterograph Cards.